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Astronomy Test

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

Day and night are caused by
a.
the tilt of Earth’s axis.
b.
Earth’s revolution around the sun.
c.
eclipses.
d.
Earth’s rotation on its axis.
 

2. 

One complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes about
a.
one rotation.
b.
one season.
c.
one year.
d.
one eclipse.
 

3. 

Earth has seasons because
a.
Earth rotates on its axis.
b.
the distance between Earth and the sun changes.
c.
Earth’s axis is tilted as it moves around the sun.
d.
the temperature of the sun changes.
 

4. 

When the north end of Earth’s axis is tilted toward the sun, North America will experience
a.
more indirect rays and shorter days.
b.
more indirect rays and longer days.
c.
more direct rays and shorter days.
d.
more direct rays and longer days.
 

5. 

The phase of the moon you see depends on
a.
where you are on Earth’s surface.
b.
how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth.
c.
how much of the moon’s surface is lit by the sun.
d.
whether or not an eclipse is occurring.
 

6. 

From new moon phase to full moon phase you see
a.
an increasing amount of the lighted side of the moon.
b.
a decreasing amount of the lighted side of the moon.
c.
the same amount of the lighted side of the moon.
d.
more of the lighted side, then less of the lighted side of the moon.
 

7. 

For a solar eclipse to occur,
a.
the sun must be directly between Earth and the moon.
b.
the moon must be directly between Earth and the sun.
c.
the moon must be directly behind Earth.
d.
Earth must be directly between the sun and the moon.
 

8. 

During what phase can a lunar eclipse occur?
a.
new moon
b.
first quarter
c.
waxing gibbous
d.
full moon
 

9. 

When are tides highest?
a.
during the moon’s first quarter phase
b.
when the sun, Earth, and the moon are nearly in a line
c.
during the moon’s third quarter phase
d.
when the moon is at a right angle to the sun
 

10. 

Tides are caused mainly by
a.
Earth’s rotation on its axis, which causes water to move.
b.
differences in how much the sun pulls on different parts of Earth.
c.
strong winds blowing water onto coasts.
d.
differences in how much the moon pulls on different parts of Earth.
 

11. 

It’s a basic law of physics that for every force, or action, there is
a.
a decreased force, or reaction.
b.
an equal force in the same direction.
c.
an increased force, or reaction.
d.
an equal and opposite force, or reaction.
 

12. 

Putting rockets into space was made possible by the development of
a.
gunpowder fuels.
b.
taller single-stage rockets.
c.
smaller single-stage rockets.
d.
multistage rockets.
 

13. 

One major use of space stations is
a.
to launch trips to the moon.
b.
to obtain better photographs of Earth.
c.
to conduct scientific research.
d.
to monitor the activities of other satellites.
 

14. 

How large is the moon compared to Earth?
a.
about the same diameter as Earth
b.
about one half the diameter of Earth
c.
about one fourth the diameter of Earth
d.
about one eighth the diameter of Earth
 

15. 

Scientists think the moon was formed when
a.
a large object struck Earth, and material from both bodies combined.
b.
gravitational forces attracted materials from outer space.
c.
meteoroids collected and solidified within the pull of Earth’s gravity.
d.
gases from Earth escaped from the atmosphere and condensed.
 

16. 

Galileo thought that the dark, flat parts of the moon’s surface were
a.
oceans.
b.
deserts.
c.
mountains.
d.
craters.
 

17. 

Galileo saw that much of the moon’s surface is covered with round pits called
a.
highlands.
b.
seas.
c.
craters.
d.
maria.
 

18. 

Much of what scientists know about the moon has come from
a.
revolving around the moon.
b.
studying the moon through telescopes.
c.
astronauts walking on the moon.
d.
studying moon rocks gathered by astronauts.
 

19. 

Earth’s rotation takes about
a.
365 days.
b.
6 months.
c.
24 hours.
d.
1 month.
 

20. 

In the Southern Hemisphere, the summer solstice occurs when the sun is directly overhead at
a.
the equator.
b.
23.5° south latitude.
c.
23.5° north latitude.
d.
30° south latitude.
 

21. 

One of the main uses of satellites is
a.
launching deep-space expeditions.
b.
controlling the weather.
c.
photographing Earth’s surface.
d.
preventing ozone depletion.
 

22. 

An equinox occurs when
a.
neither end of Earth’s axis is tilted toward or away from the sun.
b.
the north end of Earth’s axis is tilted away from the sun.
c.
the north end of Earth’s axis is tilted toward the sun.
d.
Earth’s axis is parallel to the sun’s rays.
 

23. 

Because the moon rotates once for each revolution around Earth,
a.
you see some phases more than others.
b.
a different side of the moon faces Earth each day.
c.
you never see the far side of the moon.
d.
the far side of the moon is visible only during the full moon phase.
 

24. 

The amount of the lighted side of the moon you can see is the same during
a.
new moon and full moon phase.
b.
new moon and first quarter phase.
c.
first quarter and third quarter phase.
d.
full moon and third quarter phase.
 

25. 

When do neap tides occur?
a.
at new moon
b.
when the sun’s pull is in the same direction as the moon’s
c.
when the sun’s pull is at right angles to the moon’s
d.
at full moon
 

26. 

Rocket propulsion is based on
a.
having a streamlined nose cone.
b.
having a three-stage booster system.
c.
hot gas being propelled out of the rocket.
d.
reducing friction as much as possible.
 

27. 

Photographs of the far side of the moon show that
a.
the far side is much rougher than the near side.
b.
there is water on the far side.
c.
the far side has active volcanoes.
d.
the far side has a smooth surface.
 

28. 

The two factors that combine to keep the planets in orbit are
a.
gravity and orbital speed.
b.
orbital speed and mass.
c.
mass and inertia.
d.
gravity and inertia.
 

29. 

The tendency of a moving object to continue moving in a straight line or a stationary object to remain in place is called
a.
orbital speed.
b.
mass.
c.
inertia.
d.
gravity.
 

30. 

The sun produces energy by
a.
attracting it with the force of gravity.
b.
nuclear fission.
c.
burning fuels such as oil.
d.
nuclear fusion.
 

31. 

There is enough fuel remaining in the sun to last for another
a.
1 billion years.
b.
4 billion years.
c.
10 billion years.
d.
15 billion years.
 

32. 

What layer are you looking at when you look at a photograph of the sun?
a.
photosphere
b.
chromosphere
c.
corona
d.
prominence
 

33. 

The solar wind is a stream of electrically charged particles produced by the sun’s
a.
chromosphere.
b.
photosphere.
c.
corona.
d.
core.
 

34. 

When compared to the gases around them on the sun, sunspots are
a.
hotter.
b.
the same temperature.
c.
cooler.
d.
brighter.
 

35. 

What solar feature can increase the solar wind, sometimes causing electrical power problems on Earth?
a.
prominences
b.
sunspots
c.
core emissions
d.
solar flares
 

36. 

What do all of the inner planets have in common?
a.
They have the same period of revolution.
b.
They have the same period of rotation.
c.
They have the same diameter.
d.
They are small and have rocky surfaces.
 

37. 

Aside from Earth, which inner planet once had water on its surface?
a.
Mercury
b.
Europa
c.
Venus
d.
Mars
 

38. 

The atmospheres of the gas giant planets cannot escape into space because
a.
the gases are too heavy.
b.
the gases solidify at higher elevations.
c.
the planets have very strong gravities.
d.
although they are big, the planets have little mass.
 

39. 

What do the four outer planets have in common?
a.
They are much larger than Earth and are made mainly of gases.
b.
They are about the same size as Earth and are made mainly of gases.
c.
They are much larger than Earth and are solid.
d.
They are about the same size as Earth and are solid.
 

40. 

Pluto is different from the outer planets because it
a.
is almost entirely made of gases.
b.
is much larger than the others.
c.
has the most moons.
d.
is small and has a solid surface.
 

41. 

Conditions required for life on Earth include
a.
alternating day and night cycles.
b.
extreme differences in elevation.
c.
polar ice caps.
d.
liquid water.
 

42. 

Scientists have discovered that life forms on Earth exist
a.
in a very narrow range of conditions.
b.
in a very wide range of conditions.
c.
only in moderate temperatures.
d.
in moist or humid habitats only.
 

43. 

Solar prominences
a.
are cooler than the rest of the chromosphere.
b.
link different parts of sunspot regions together.
c.
cannot be seen during an eclipse.
d.
are hotter than the rest of the chromosphere.
 

44. 

Earth is unique among the planets because of
a.
its rocky surface.
b.
its oceans.
c.
its large size.
d.
the direction in which it rotates.
 

45. 

Saturn’s rings are made up mostly of
a.
nitrogen and helium.
b.
ice and water vapor.
c.
volcanic dust particles.
d.
chunks of ice and rock.
 

46. 

The electromagnetic spectrum is
a.
all of the colors of light you can see with your eyes.
b.
all of the different types of electromagnetic waves.
c.
a band of colors formed when white light passes through a prism.
d.
the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave.
 

47. 

A range of colors formed when white light passes through a prism is called a
a.
lens.
b.
photograph.
c.
spectrum.
d.
ray.
 

48. 

Both reflecting and refracting telescopes are designed to
a.
break visible light into colors of the spectrum.
b.
separate visible light from ultraviolet and radio waves.
c.
gather and focus visible light.
d.
work better with short-wavelength radiation.
 

49. 

Reflecting telescopes differ from refracting telescopes in having
a.
no eyepiece lens.
b.
two large objective lenses.
c.
a mirror instead of an objective lens.
d.
one large objective lens.
 

50. 

The chemical composition of a star can be determined using a(n)
a.
refracting telescope.
b.
spectrograph.
c.
satellite.
d.
reflecting telescope.
 

51. 

A light-year is
a.
365 days.
b.
the distance light travels in a year.
c.
the distance from Earth to Proxima Centauri.
d.
the amount of light the sun produces in a year.
 

52. 

Stars are classified according to their
a.
distance, size, and color.
b.
size, distance, and brightness.
c.
color, brightness, and temperature.
d.
size, brightness, and temperature.
 

53. 

What color are the hottest stars?
a.
blue-white
b.
yellow
c.
red
d.
orange
 

54. 

A star is born when
a.
a nebula expands.
b.
helium and oxygen combine.
c.
nuclear fusion starts.
d.
a protostar begins to cool.
 

55. 

All stars begin their lives as parts of
a.
nebulas.
b.
protostars.
c.
pulsars.
d.
double stars.
 

56. 

The lifetime of a star depends on its
a.
temperature.
b.
brightness.
c.
mass.
d.
magnitude.
 

57. 

A supernova is the explosion of a dying
a.
medium-sized star.
b.
giant or supergiant star.
c.
protostar.
d.
nebula.
 

58. 

When stars begin to run out of fuel, they first become
a.
red giants or supergiants.
b.
supernovas.
c.
white dwarfs.
d.
neutron stars.
 

59. 

The force that tends to pull together the matter in stars is
a.
gravity.
b.
nuclear fusion.
c.
expansion.
d.
nuclear fission.
 

60. 

Black holes form from stars that
a.
collapse extremely fast.
b.
lose all their gravitational attraction.
c.
were more than 40 times the mass of the sun.
d.
had first turned into white dwarfs.
 



 
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