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Astronomy Pre-Test

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

Day and night are caused by
a.
the tilt of Earth’s axis.
b.
Earth’s revolution around the sun.
c.
eclipses.
d.
Earth’s rotation on its axis.
 

2. 

One complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes about
a.
one rotation.
b.
one season.
c.
one year.
d.
one eclipse.
 

3. 

Earth has seasons because
a.
Earth rotates on its axis.
b.
the distance between Earth and the sun changes.
c.
Earth’s axis is tilted as it moves around the sun.
d.
the temperature of the sun changes.
 

4. 

When the north end of Earth’s axis is tilted toward the sun, North America will experience
a.
more indirect rays and shorter days.
b.
more indirect rays and longer days.
c.
more direct rays and shorter days.
d.
more direct rays and longer days.
 

5. 

The phase of the moon you see depends on
a.
where you are on Earth’s surface.
b.
how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth.
c.
how much of the moon’s surface is lit by the sun.
d.
whether or not an eclipse is occurring.
 

6. 

From new moon phase to full moon phase you see
a.
an increasing amount of the lighted side of the moon.
b.
a decreasing amount of the lighted side of the moon.
c.
the same amount of the lighted side of the moon.
d.
more of the lighted side, then less of the lighted side of the moon.
 

7. 

For a solar eclipse to occur,
a.
the sun must be directly between Earth and the moon.
b.
the moon must be directly between Earth and the sun.
c.
the moon must be directly behind Earth.
d.
Earth must be directly between the sun and the moon.
 

8. 

During what phase can a lunar eclipse occur?
a.
new moon
b.
first quarter
c.
waxing gibbous
d.
full moon
 

9. 

When are tides highest?
a.
during the moon’s first quarter phase
b.
when the sun, Earth, and the moon are nearly in a line
c.
during the moon’s third quarter phase
d.
when the moon is at a right angle to the sun
 

10. 

Tides are caused mainly by
a.
Earth’s rotation on its axis, which causes water to move.
b.
differences in how much the sun pulls on different parts of Earth.
c.
strong winds blowing water onto coasts.
d.
differences in how much the moon pulls on different parts of Earth.
 

11. 

It’s a basic law of physics that for every force, or action, there is
a.
a decreased force, or reaction.
b.
an equal force in the same direction.
c.
an increased force, or reaction.
d.
an equal and opposite force, or reaction.
 

12. 

Putting rockets into space was made possible by the development of
a.
gunpowder fuels.
b.
taller single-stage rockets.
c.
smaller single-stage rockets.
d.
multistage rockets.
 

13. 

Geosynchronous satellites above the equator
a.
revolve around Earth faster than other satellites.
b.
vary considerably in their distance from Earth.
c.
stay above the same point on Earth.
d.
follow an elliptical orbit.
 

14. 

One major use of space stations is
a.
to launch trips to the moon.
b.
to obtain better photographs of Earth.
c.
to conduct scientific research.
d.
to monitor the activities of other satellites.
 

15. 

How large is the moon compared to Earth?
a.
about the same diameter as Earth
b.
about one half the diameter of Earth
c.
about one fourth the diameter of Earth
d.
about one eighth the diameter of Earth
 

16. 

Scientists think the moon was formed when
a.
a large object struck Earth, and material from both bodies combined.
b.
gravitational forces attracted materials from outer space.
c.
meteoroids collected and solidified within the pull of Earth’s gravity.
d.
gases from Earth escaped from the atmosphere and condensed.
 

17. 

Much of what scientists know about the moon has come from
a.
revolving around the moon.
b.
studying the moon through telescopes.
c.
astronauts walking on the moon.
d.
studying moon rocks gathered by astronauts.
 

18. 

Instruments left on the moon to measure heat flow show that
a.
the center of the moon is molten.
b.
most of the moon’s interior is very hot.
c.
the moon’s interior has cooled almost completely.
d.
the moon has high seismic activity.
 

19. 

Earth’s rotation takes about
a.
365 days.
b.
6 months.
c.
24 hours.
d.
1 month.
 

20. 

In the Southern Hemisphere, the summer solstice occurs when the sun is directly overhead at
a.
the equator.
b.
23.5° south latitude.
c.
23.5° north latitude.
d.
30° south latitude.
 

21. 

One of the main uses of satellites is
a.
launching deep-space expeditions.
b.
controlling the weather.
c.
photographing Earth’s surface.
d.
preventing ozone depletion.
 

22. 

An equinox occurs when
a.
neither end of Earth’s axis is tilted toward or away from the sun.
b.
the north end of Earth’s axis is tilted away from the sun.
c.
the north end of Earth’s axis is tilted toward the sun.
d.
Earth’s axis is parallel to the sun’s rays.
 

23. 

Because the moon rotates once for each revolution around Earth,
a.
you see some phases more than others.
b.
a different side of the moon faces Earth each day.
c.
you never see the far side of the moon.
d.
the far side of the moon is visible only during the full moon phase.
 

24. 

The amount of the lighted side of the moon you can see is the same during
a.
new moon and full moon phase.
b.
new moon and first quarter phase.
c.
first quarter and third quarter phase.
d.
full moon and third quarter phase.
 

25. 

You are more likely to see a solar eclipse than a lunar eclipse because
a.
the moon’s shadow covers all of Earth during a solar eclipse.
b.
new moon phases occur less often than full moon phases.
c.
only people on the daytime side of Earth can see a solar eclipse.
d.
you must be in the moon’s shadow to see a solar eclipse.
 

26. 

When do neap tides occur?
a.
at new moon
b.
when the sun’s pull is in the same direction as the moon’s
c.
when the sun’s pull is at right angles to the moon’s
d.
at full moon
 

27. 

Rocket propulsion is based on
a.
having a streamlined nose cone.
b.
having a three-stage booster system.
c.
hot gas being propelled out of the rocket.
d.
reducing friction as much as possible.
 

28. 

Photographs of the far side of the moon show that
a.
the far side is much rougher than the near side.
b.
there is water on the far side.
c.
the far side has active volcanoes.
d.
the far side has a smooth surface.
 

29. 

The model in which Earth is at the center of the system of planets is called the
a.
solar system.
b.
heliocentric system.
c.
geocentric system.
d.
Copernican system.
 

30. 

The heliocentric system gained support when Galileo observed that
a.
one side of the moon always faces Earth.
b.
most of the smaller planets are closer to the sun.
c.
Venus goes through phases similar to those of Earth’s moon.
d.
the orbit of each planet is an ellipse.
 

31. 

The two factors that combine to keep the planets in orbit are
a.
gravity and orbital speed.
b.
orbital speed and mass.
c.
mass and inertia.
d.
gravity and inertia.
 

32. 

The tendency of a moving object to continue moving in a straight line or a stationary object to remain in place is called
a.
orbital speed.
b.
mass.
c.
inertia.
d.
gravity.
 

33. 

The sun produces energy by
a.
attracting it with the force of gravity.
b.
nuclear fission.
c.
burning fuels such as oil.
d.
nuclear fusion.
 

34. 

There is enough fuel remaining in the sun to last for another
a.
1 billion years.
b.
5 billion years.
c.
10 billion years.
d.
15 billion years.
 

35. 

What layer are you looking at when you look at a photograph of the sun?
a.
photosphere
b.
chromosphere
c.
corona
d.
prominence
 

36. 

The solar wind is a stream of electrically charged particles produced by the sun’s
a.
chromosphere.
b.
photosphere.
c.
corona.
d.
core.
 

37. 

When compared to the gases around them on the sun, sunspots are
a.
hotter.
b.
the same temperature.
c.
cooler.
d.
brighter.
 

38. 

What solar feature can increase the solar wind, sometimes causing electrical power problems on Earth?
a.
prominences
b.
sunspots
c.
core emissions
d.
solar flares
 

39. 

What do all of the inner planets have in common?
a.
They have the same period of revolution.
b.
They have the same period of rotation.
c.
They have the same diameter.
d.
They are small and have rocky surfaces.
 

40. 

Aside from Earth, which inner planet once had water on its surface?
a.
Mercury
b.
Europa
c.
Venus
d.
Mars
 

41. 

The atmospheres of the gas giant planets cannot escape into space because
a.
the gases are too heavy.
b.
the gases solidify at higher elevations.
c.
the planets have very strong gravities.
d.
although they are big, the planets have little mass.
 

42. 

What do the first four outer planets have in common?
a.
They are much larger than Earth and are made mainly of gases.
b.
They are about the same size as Earth and are made mainly of gases.
c.
They are much larger than Earth and are solid.
d.
They are about the same size as Earth and are solid.
 

43. 

Pluto is different from the other outer planets because it
a.
is almost entirely made of gases.
b.
is much larger than the others.
c.
has the most moons.
d.
is small and has a solid surface.
 

44. 

Some astronomers think Pluto should not be called a planet because it
a.
is too far away.
b.
has such a large moon.
c.
is so small.
d.
cannot be seen without a telescope.
 

45. 

What shape are the orbits of most comets?
a.
long, narrow ellipses
b.
circles
c.
nearly circular ellipses
d.
spherical
 

46. 

The asteroid belt is located
a.
between Earth and Mars.
b.
between Mars and Jupiter.
c.
between Jupiter and Saturn.
d.
between Saturn and Uranus.
 

47. 

Meteoroids usually come from
a.
debris from other planets.
b.
solar winds.
c.
beyond the solar system.
d.
comets or asteroids.
 

48. 

When a meteoroid enters Earth’s atmosphere, it produces a streak of light called a
a.
meteor.
b.
asteroid.
c.
meteorite.
d.
comet.
 

49. 

Conditions required for life on Earth include
a.
alternating day and night cycles.
b.
extreme differences in elevation.
c.
polar ice caps.
d.
liquid water.
 

50. 

Scientists have discovered that life forms on Earth exist
a.
in a very narrow range of conditions.
b.
in a very wide range of conditions.
c.
only in moderate temperatures.
d.
in moist or humid habitats only.
 

51. 

The hypothesis that Mars may once have had the conditions needed to support life is based on
a.
its similar size to Earth.
b.
its reddish surface.
c.
surface patterns that look like dried stream beds.
d.
the system of canals seen by Schiaparelli.
 

52. 

Europa is considered a good place to look for life because
a.
there may be liquid water under its icy crust.
b.
its equator has tropical temperatures.
c.
volcanic activity keeps it warm.
d.
it is the same size as Earth.
 

53. 

Copernicus explained that
a.
the sun is at the center of the system of planets.
b.
the sun and the planets revolve around Earth.
c.
the geocentric system is correct.
d.
there are only six planets.
 

54. 

Solar prominences
a.
are cooler than the rest of the chromosphere.
b.
link different parts of sunspot regions together.
c.
cannot be seen during an eclipse.
d.
are hotter than the rest of the chromosphere.
 

55. 

Earth is unique among the planets because of
a.
its rocky surface.
b.
its oceans.
c.
its large size.
d.
the direction in which it rotates.
 

56. 

Venus and Earth are much alike in terms of
a.
their size and density.
b.
their rates of rotation.
c.
their atmospheres.
d.
their direction of rotation.
 

57. 

Saturn’s rings are made up mostly of
a.
nitrogen and helium.
b.
ice and water vapor.
c.
volcanic dust particles.
d.
chunks of ice and rock.
 

58. 

Uranus is different from most other planets because it
a.
is the farthest from the sun.
b.
is mostly nitrogen and helium.
c.
rotates on its side.
d.
has the most moons.
 

Short Answer
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

astronomy_pre-tes_t_files/i0610000.jpg
 

59. 

Number the phases of the moon in the order that they occur, beginning with the new moon as number 1.
 

60. 

Approximately how much time passes between H and B?
 

61. 

In phase E, from what direction is the sun shining?
 

62. 

Where is the moon in relation to Earth and the sun during phase B?
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

astronomy_pre-tes_t_files/i0660000.jpg
 

63. 

Write the name of the planet that is labeled with each number. 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________
 

64. 

What objects are found at 5? Why are they not considered to be planets?
 

65. 

Name object 9 and explain why it appears different from the other gas giant planets.
 



 
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